Fine art is one branch of art created humans using penggungkapan medium such as art idea. Which belong to the art is a line, plane, shapes, letters, numbers, warn, even light. Because of such differences is used as the medium is then known branches of art such as painting, sculpture, graphic art, art design, and so on.
As a work of art, art can be classified into various interests. Based on the shape dineal the art works of two-dimensional (two-dimensional) and three-dimensional works of art (tridimensional). Two-dimensional work of art is a work of art that is attached to a flat surface such as drawing, painting, and the like. While the three-dimensional art works dalah works of art that uses bentu-form that has three sizes (length, width, height) as a medium, such as sculptures, works of craft, and the like.
In addition to the classification based on its shape, works of art can also be grouped by function usefulness in the context of human life. Based on its usefulness is known for fine arts murini (pure art / fine art) and art wear (applied art) which is often called the craft art.
Pure art or pure art is a work of art that is meant for enjoyment purposes only and does not have a practical use in everyday life. Pure art work can be found in the form of paintings, sculptures, and the like. While art supplies or art life is a work of art than as works of art also has a practical function or usefulness s ehari-day life. Therefore, the use of art commonly known as craft art (craft). According to Big Indonesian Dictionary, kriya means handicrafts. So in a limited sense can be defined as craft art crafts.
The development of art can be traced from ancient times to the modern era. Broadly speaking, the history of art is divided into several periods as follows: Period Prehistoric Art
Fine art can be considered as part of the old culture. Within certain limits, the art has existed since man knows civilization. The works in question are found in the form of pottery by certain decorative ornaments, figurines ancestor prehistoric people, as well as notes (in the form of images) are inscribed on the walls of the cave.
At the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, found in several places of art which is considered the oldest until today. The discovery of the paintings on the walls of caves located in the South of France and Northern Spain as in Combaralles, Font de Gaume, Altamira, and Alpera.
The paintings are made on the walls and ceiling of the cave is made with digurat or gouged with a sharp stone. This depicting colored stone wear dangklik) mixed with animal fat as an adhesive. Most are pictures of animals bison or cow forest. There are also bears, reindeer, wild horses, and wild boar. Ancient civilizations Nations
Eastern nations that inhabit the Middle East and Asia Minor and Egypt areas known as nations that have a high civilization. In Egypt we can see the remnants of civilization in the form of art, architecture, sculpture, and painting the walls of high value such as pyramids, spinx and reliefs and paintings on the walls inside.< Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians are the nations that have a high culture.
The Greeks and Romans often used as a starting point for the development of art in the world. Paintings by ancient Greek painters displaying geometric shapes are engraved on the surface of ceramics, vases, objects and other handicrafts. Meanwhile, the Romans of his work can be seen in the manor houses in the city of Pompei. Arts Middle Ages
This period lasted from the year 476 AD that is at the beginning of Christianity in the Roman perkembngan, and ended in 1492, ie at the time of the discovery of America. Works of medieval art is heavily influenced by the style of the Ancient and Roman The Greek culture that adheres to the belief of polytheism (worship of many gods) and mixed with the teachings of Christianity. At this time the church has a great influence. Arts Renaissance Period
A renaissance era era massive changes in various fields of science and art and culture. The establishment of the church began disturbed by various conflicts and discoveries in the fields of science. New discoveries in the field of geography, physics, astronomy has been considered as opposed keberaddan da religious establishment. Galileo (1564-1642), a physicist, astronomer and philosopher, was arrested and jailed with no specified time limit for inventions contrary to law-law believed the church.
The characters are well-known in the art of this period was Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael Santi. Important works of this period are the forms of church buildings, frescoes, reliefs on the doors of houses and churches, as well as bronze statues that adorn almost every church in Italy as well as all of Western Europe and Eastern Europe. Arts Period Baroque and Rokoko
Said Barok (baroque) is derived from the Roman language, which means “irregular” or “deviant”. Michelangelo and Palladio considered a pioneer of this movement. Baroque era was born in the mid 16th century as an early influence of Italian art to the rest of mainland Europe.
If the renaissance mission is to break away from the medieval way of thinking and mindset of the church met, then the baroque escape from attachment themes and nuasnsa-nuances contained in the renaissance period. Paintings in baroque seem excessive from the real situation. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), a Dutch artist, depicts the bodies of people full of muscles and powerful figures.
Rococo is taken from the word “rocaile” which means the art of shells, a type of art that is very popular at that time in Italy. In the days of these forms of art appear widespread fraud rules. The paintings are made to be more beautiful than the original, more powerful, and deviate from the truth. Artworks into goods orders nobility and merchants who have a lot of money. At this time the art kkary wrongly traded and become a valuable commodity. Fine Arts The 19th century
Excavation back the old motifs, such as those contained in the styles of Ancient Greece and Rome has spawned new sects known as classical and neo Alisan klasisme in painting and sculpture.
Some important notes that can be presented in the development of art in the 19th century are as follows: The emergence of various schools of art such as romaantisme, impressionism, realism, symbolism, munumentalisme, etc. Release of the influence of religion, especially the church, of style, fashion and the arts in general breath. The painters increasingly daring experiment with the use of bright colors as an outpouring of emotion and thought. The artist is no longer of the nobility or have a high social status, but also many who come from the lower classes.
Several prominent artists who were born in the 19th century and represent flows that was followed is as follows:
Classicism: Bartholome architect Vignon (1762-1846), painter Jacques Louis David (1748-1825)
Romance: Raden Saleh Sjarif Bastaman, Ludwig Richter, Kasper Friederich.
Impressionism: Jean Claude Monet, Eduard Manet etc.
Neo Impresioniesme: Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin, etc.
Realism: George Hendrik Breitner, Auguste Rodin, etc.
Symbolism and Monumentalisme: William Blake, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, etc.
Expressionism: Vincent van Gogh, Eduard Munch, etc. Fine Arts The 20th century
With the outbreak of World War I, there arose a range of motion improvements in the field of fine arts which includes physical, material, mental, and spiritual. The establishment of new countries as a result of the struggle of colonial countries European nations, has generated a new spirit in the field of fine arts.
Streams that have sprung up in the 20th century, among others fauvism led by Henri Matisse, etc. Cubist painter Pablo Picasso show, Leo Getel, etc. Futurism featuring figures peuis Buido Carlo Carra and Severini. Absolutism menampilakn painter Wassily
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